Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.
Sc is ‘more rare’ than all other REEs
Where is Sc found?
viable sources of Sc today
TiO2 pigment product
acid wastes streams
Uranium processing wastes
Bauxides and nickel laterite ores are proposed as the most promising Sc resources for future large scale production; Parnassos/Greece could well be a worldwide resource for Sc!
Sc is produced in a handful of places globally
The current Sc world production is estimated at 10 – 12 tpy of scandium oxide
THE ECONOMY OF Sc
Al – Sc 2%: 100-150 $/kg
Sc VALUE CHAIN:
*data from 2013
Sc has superpowers
Sc achieves superior results than Y in material applications
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS
+ see example
LASERS WITH Sc GARNETS
+ see example
Sc GOES WELL WITH Al
- as strong as titanium
- as light as aluminium
- as hard as ceramic
Sc drastically improves Al alloys, increasing strength, corrosion resistance & allowing welding…
Sc Al alloys origin
Scandium –Aluminium alloys were first used in the 1980s for structural purposes in Soviet aircrafts and missiles.
The strength that Scandium alloys brought to weldable alloys, allowed Soviet to built aircrafts (MIG-29) and utilize welded structures. This gave these planes tremendous weight, maneuverability and range advantages.
Sc offers the highest increment of strengthening per atomic percent of any alloying element when added to Al
Sc reduces hot cracking during welding of Al-alloys
The Al-Sc-Mg alloy powder is used in 3D printing by AIRBUS
We did produce 122 out of the 162 parts on our M400 out of SCALMALLOY®. The partition weights a massive 45% less than current Airbus A320 partition designs
APWorks, 2 December 2015
|Sc2O3||SOFC – SSZ solid electrolyte||in market by Bloomenergy||Household use|
|Sc2O3||Er: YSGG garnets ( Er:Y 3 Sc 2 Ga 3 0 12 ) for optics in lazer application||Er: YSGG has 3 times higher efficiency than Nd,Er: YAG in solid-state lasers radiating in the 3 µm|
|Sc-Al alloy||High resistance Al alloy used in welding or casting – best Al alloy available||High End sporting equipment||Aerospace, Automotive|
|Al-Mg-Sc (Scalmalloy®)||3D Printing –licensed by Airbus to Apworks||Aerospace, Automotive|
|ScF3||Material with negative thermal expansion coefficient||Advanced material composites|
|20% Sc - 80% Ti Carbide||doubling of the hardness TiC, to about 50 GPa, second only to diamonds in hardness.||Advanced materials|
|Phosporous / Lighting||Scandium has a broad emission spectrum that generates a ‘daylight’ effect. Sc2O3 and ScVO4 are typical host materials for phosphorus in monitors||Stadium / studio lighting||Household lighting|